Energy Research Centres

NAFC Marine Centre UHI, Shetland content

NAFC Marine Centre UHI, Shetland

NAFC Marine Centre UHI, Shetland

NAFC Marine Centre is UHI’s most northerly campus.

Key expertise

  • Marine engineering
  • Renewables engineering
  • Fisheries
  • Marine hatchery
  • Aquaculture
  • Fish biology
  • Nautical studies
  • Shipping simulator
  • Life Sciences (SSQC)

Key contact

Marine and renewable engineering

The NAFC Marine Centre UHI was established by the Shetland Islands Council in 1992 (as the North Atlantic Fisheries College) to support Shetland’s fisheries industries, which form an important part of the islands’ economy.

Clients include the nautical, fisheries, engineering, aquaculture and scientific sectors and other emerging industries that may contribute to sustainable development. The Marine Science and Technology department at the NAFC Marine Centre is divided into four sections: Aquaculture Development, Fisheries Science, Marine Environment, and Marine Planning, Policy and Advice, although many staff have input to more than one section due to the multidisciplinary approach that is applied to many of our projects.

They conduct applied research and provide training and advice to marine-based industries and other stakeholders within Shetland, wider Scotland and beyond , with the aim of adding positively to the viability of industry sectors, to train and educate people of all ages and backgrounds, and to help integrate people and the marine environment.

Energy specific activities

Providing maritime training, research and development, marine resource monitoring, inspection, advice and management.  Focus areas include:

Marine spacial planning as a mechanism to achieve sustainable management in the marine environment

Identification and profiling of potential marine energy resources on Shetland

Previous projects at NAFC Marine Centre

Shetland Marine Energy Development (SMED)

Project using the Shetland Marine Spatial Plan to identify suitable sites for marine renewable energy projects in the islands.

Agronomy Institute, Orkney content

Agronomy Institute, Orkney

Agronomy Institute, Orkney

The Institute is based at Orkney College UHI and provides a research facility for the development of plants and plant-based products within UHI.

Key expertise

  • Crop research
  • Agronomy
  • Agriculture

Key contact

Biofuel development and refining

The Institute focuses particularly on the Highlands, Western Isles and the Northern Isles and currently runs major agronomy projects in most of Northern Scotland. These are in collaboration with a wide range of academic, business and SME partners.

The AI has a wide portfolio of research falling into the main categories

  • Cereals
  • Biomass for fuel crops
  • Plants for high value extracts
  • Biodiversity

Energy specific activities

A field crop research facility for the development and promotion of temperate plants and their products that includes investigation of crops for biomass fuel production. Focus areas include:

  • Field trials and supply chain research to develop biomass crops for energy - short rotation coppice willow and grass crops.

Previous projects at the Agronomy Institute


PELLETime is a European programme to identify and develop tools that support sustainable local pellet supply chains through the use of local renewable energy resources.

Orkney Research Centre for Archaeology (ORCA) content

Orkney Research Centre for Archaeology (ORCA)

Orkney Research Centre for Archaeology (ORCA)

ORCA and ORCA Marine are nested in the UHI Archaeology Institute.

Key expertise

  • Commercial services
  • Marine and terrestrial geophysical survey
  • Laser scanning, landscape survey and GIS
  • Historic Environment Impact Assessment
  • Peat, palaeoenvironment and past climate change
  • Archaeology and cultural heritage
  • Evaluation, excavation, watching briefs
  • Renewable energy and the historic environment
  • Oil and gas and the historic environment
  • Marine spatial planning

Key contacts

Archaeological and Geophysical Services, Historic Environment Impact Assessment

We offer a comprehensive commercial archaeological service for both marine and terrestrial energy-related developments. Our staff have years of experience in all types of archaeological work throughout Britain and abroad, but particularly in and around Orkney and the Highlands and Islands. All team members are suitably qualified professionals with a variety of academic qualifications at undergraduate, masters and doctorate level. We are a registered supplier on the Achilles Utilities Vendor Database.

Our capabilities include environmental impact assessments, historic environment consultancy, environmental and archaeological geophysics, geomatics, laser scanning, archaeological excavation, environmental archaeology, auger surveys and analysis of onshore and offshore geotechnical datasets for archaeological and palaeoenvironmental potential, marine archaeology, exploration geophysics (including collection of sidescan sonar and sub-bottom profiling data), archaeological sciences, geoarchaeology and diving science.

We have been closely involved with several marine renewable energy developments in Orkney Waters, the Pentland Firth and off the Western Isles, as well as subsea cable and gas pipeline projects off Shetland and in the North Sea. This has comprised provision of Historic Environment Impact Assessments, Appraisals and Environmental Statements, which have included desk-based assessments, walkover surveys, interpretation of sidescan sonar, sub-bottom profiler and multi-beam echo-sounding remote sensing data, baseline assessments, impact assessments, provision of management and mitigation strategies.

Similarly, we have been closely involved in onshore energy development projects (gas, renewables and grid transmission) in the Highlands and Islands. Again, this has included provision of Historic Environment Impact Assessments, Appraisals and Environmental Statements, which have included desk-based assessments, walkover surveys, baseline assessments, impact assessments, provision of management and mitigation strategies, geophysical surveys (including magnetometry, resistivity and ground-penetrating radar), site evaluation, watching briefs and excavation for developments such as the new gas processing plant in Shetland, converter stations, substations, grid cables and windfarms.

Summary of current and recent energy-related Archaeological, Cultural Heritage and Historic Environment contracts:

  • EIA and ES for the Brims tidal array project, Orkney (Client: Brims TidalOpenHydro Ltd);
  • EIA and ES for the Hywind offshore windfarm project (Client: Xodus Group Ltd for Statoil);
  • EIA and ES (marine and terrestrial) for the Farr Point wave farm project (Client: Aquatera Ltd for Pelamis Wave Power Ltd);
  • Sub-bottom profile and sidescan sonar surveys of the seabed at the European Marine Energy Centre’s test site at Billia Croo, Orkney (Client: Pelamis Wave Power Ltd);
  • EA for Orkney-Caithness subsea cable project (Client: Environ Ltd for SHE Transmission);
  • EIA (marine and terrestrial) for Siadar Wave Energy Project: Siadar 2, Lewis, Outer Hebrides (Client: Xodus Group Ltd for Voith Hydro Wavegen Ltd);
  • Baseline Assessment (marine and terrestrial) for Outshore Point Wave Farm, Orkney (Clients: Xodus for Brough Head Wave Farm Ltd);
  • EIA, ES (marine and terrestrial) and geophysical survey for the MeyGen tidal stream energy project, Inner Sound, Caithness (Clients: Xodus Group Ltd for MeyGen Ltd);
  • EIA and ES (both marine and terrestrial) for Spittal HVDC Convertor Station and cable routes in Caithness (Client: Aquatera Ltd for Scottish and Southern Energy;
  • EIA and ES (marine and terrestrial) for Laggan-Tormore gas plant and pipelines off Shetland on the UK Continental Shelf and in the North Sea (Clients: Xodus for Total E&P UK Ltd);
  • Archaeological Excavations, Watching Briefs and Evaluations at the Shetland Gas Plant and associated pipelines (Clients: Total E&P UK Ltd., Allseas Group S.A. and Petrofac);
  • EA and Watching Brief for a condensate pipe at the Sullom Voe Terminal, Shetland (Clients: IKM Consulting Ltd for BP);
  • EIAs for several community and commercial wind turbine developments in Orkney.

Applied research projects include

  • Project Adair, an archaeological desk-based assessment of key marine datasets for Orkney and the Pentland Firth as part of a partnership between Historic Scotland, the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS), to support cultural heritage within new marine planning, protection systems and the management of offshore resources.
  • The Scapa Flow Marine 2013 Marine Archaeology Project - remote sensing surveys and archaeological diving evaluations at key wreck sites within Scapa Flow, Orkney and at the Churchill Barriers, commissioned by Historic Scotland.
  • Presentation of papers and posters concerning identification of historic environment assets, assessment of their significance and environmental impact assessment at the 2011 Annual Conference of the Institute for Archaeologists, the 2012 UHI Sustainability and Heritage international conference and the Environmental Impact of Marine Renewables conferences of 2012 and 2014;
  • Stakeholder in the development of the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters marine spatial plan.
The Environmental Research Institute (ERI), Thurso content

The Environmental Research Institute (ERI), Thurso

The Environmental Research Institute (ERI), Thurso

ERI has its main facilities in Thurso. With such magnificent natural resources available on its doorstep, ERI has made significant progress in the past decade.

Key expertise

  • Marine Renewable Energy
  • Renewable Energy and the Environment
  • Education and Training (provision of MScs)
  • Emerging Contaminants
  • Commercial Services
  • Environment and Heritage
  • Biotechnology and Bioresources
  • Climate Change

Key contact

Renewable energy and the environment, climate change, bio-technology and bio-resources, environmental impacts

ERI have forged ahead with successful research and identified a number of priorities: renewable energy and the environment; climate change; ecology and ecosystems; biogeochemistry; emerging contaminants and ecotoxicology; as well as bio-technology and bio-resources.

The survey & research vessel ERI AURORA enables staff and students direct and frequent access to the Pentland Firth - this allows us to support industry and policy makers through the measurement of energy resources and monitoring of environmental impacts.

Research priorities

  • Resource and risk - Tidal and wave assessment; geographic information systems and optimisation modelling; modelling device-environment physical interaction and weather windowing
  • Environmental impacts - Seabirds; migratory salmon; benthic and inter-tidal environment
  • Assessing available resources of marine renewable energy (tidal current, wave and offshore wind) around Scotland.
  • Understanding the effects of marine renewable energy devices on the environment.
  • Assessing the vulnerability of offshore installations to extreme weather
  • Achieving an integrated view of energy generation, energy saving and society
  • Understanding the inter-relationships of climate change, energy consumption and generation.
  • Sustainability - Marine policy; spatial development; renewable energy and communities; adaptation strategies to climate change; bio-energy markets, supply chains and toolkits

Projects at ERI


Advancing Marine Renewable Energy Research Capacity in Scotland. SRDG grant funded programme to develop a centre of excellence for marine renewable energy research.


Marine Energy Consortium. Part of phase2 Supergen to increase knowledge and understanding of device-sea interactions of energy converters from model scale in the laboratory to full size in the open sea.


Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment. A project undertaken by ERI and SAMS focussed on environmental issues surrounding the development of marine renewable energy and the socio-economic impacts of such technologies.


Marine Renewable Energy Development in Scotland. Established as a research engagement and co-operation vehicle for a range of stakeholders in scottish marine renewable energy. The programme is led by Heriot Watt ICIT and includes academic research groups, business and economic development interests such as HIE and OIC.


Climate change - Adapting to the impacts by communities in the Northern Periphery Regions. This project supported the rural peripheral communities to adpt to the impact of climate change. Clim-ATIC has delivered twelve adaptation demonstration projects under the themes of:  Sustainable transport, Sustainable Energy management, Tourism opportunities and Risk management & Response.

Hebridean Marine Energy Futures

Incorporating LCC, ERI and SAMS with a number of industry partners - most notably Aquamarine and Wavegen - a consortium of  various marine operators and wave technology developers assessing the wave resource to the west of Lewis.


Regional Approaches to Stimulating Local Renewable Energy Solutions. A project aimed at increasing the use and uptake of locally produced energy in rural areas of northern Europe.The project focuses on the use of energy crops such as wood, grass and seaweed.  The project is also developing models that will compare the environmental impact of installing renewable energy heating systems compared to current heating systems.


A Northern Periphery Program (NPP) project aimed at safeguarding peoples living in North Atlantic coastal communities and helping them adapt to the impacts of climate change.

Lews Castle College UHI (LCC), Stornoway content

Lews Castle College UHI (LCC), Stornoway

Lews Castle College UHI (LCC), Stornoway

Lews Castle College UHI has it's main campus in Stornoway, Lewis. The college functions as a signifcant economic driver within the region, improving the quality of life locally, and acting as a catalyst for a range of development initiatives throughout the region.

Key expertise

  • Renewables analysis
  • Hydrogen energy
  • Marine energy assesments
  • Community energy
  • Energy and Knowledge Exchange
  • Built environment
  • Energy use in buildings
  • Building energy modelling
  • Building energy specifications

Key LCC contact

Key Greenspace contact

Building energy dynamics, measuring and monitoring

Lews Castle College UHI has developed a major facility in the Outer Hebrides to demonstrate to the public and the student body the benets of small scale renewables and the workings of the technology. The recent implementation of a plan to create a Hebridean Hydrogen Park and hydrogen economy have been supplemented by new facilities including the Hydrogen Lab, along with a comprehensive programme of hydrogen-related training, research and development in partnership with the local authority.A further major development in the economic opportunities of the islands, especially Lewis and Harris, relates to renewable energy. Some of the planned projects are large-scale electricity generation schemes to supply the national grid.

Greenspace Research is a low carbon energy research group based at Lews Castle College UHI. Its mission is to conduct research into new technologies and methodologies which enable carbon emissions reduction at regional, national and transnational scales. Much of its work is focused on the built environment, with the drive towards new, decentralized renewable energy infrastructure also a major priority.  Greenspace Research has been developing the capability to address these research challenges by assembling a multi-disciplinary mix of research-active staff and focusing on the link between fundamental research and cuttingedge technology. Researchers have been drawn from computer science, engineering, physics, mathematics, meteorology, biology, design, economics and policy backgrounds.

Projects at LCC


PLANning for SUStainability. SUSPLAN will focus on developing regional and pan-european strategies, recommendations, and benchmarks for the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) into future european infrastructures by 2030-2050.


Marine Renewable Energy Development in Scotland. Established as a research engagement and co-operation vehicle for a range of stakeholders in scottish marine renewable energy. The programme is led by Heriot Watt ICIT and includes academic research groups, business and economic development interests such as HIE and OIC

Hebridean Marine Energy Futures

Incorporating LCC, ERI and SAMS with a number of industry partners - most notably Aquamarine and Wavegen - a consortium of  various marine operators and wave technology developers assessing the wave resource to the west of Lewis.


Undertakes consultancy to all sectors on early stage building services and energy related solutions. It employs recognised Low Carbon Consultants and is a member of the UK Green Building Council. GreenspaceLive has a wide range of skills at its disposal to cover almost all aspects of a building’s design, construction, services and management influences its energy performance.


Opportunities for Community groups Through Energy Storage. Funded by Northern Periphery Programme and lead by Lews Castle College Engineering Department this initiative aimed to increase the viability of renewable energy solutions in rural regions by influencing consumer behaviour.


Social Enterprises in Community Renewable Energy. Funded by Northern Periphery Programme and lead by North Karelia University of applied sciences this project is a collaboration between 12 partners across the world including LCC Engineering Depertment. The aim is to develop a sustainable service that will effectively deliver knowledge transfer in the area of renewable energy to social enterprises in the community.


Lead by Greenspace Research at Lews Castle College this project is investigating Knowledge exchange for efficient sustainable energy management with the abattoir and dairy industries in Scotland.

Hydrogen Projects

LCC engineering department is working together with St Andrews University on an ERDF funded two year project that looks into the promotion of a hydrogen economy.


LCC engineering department working together with the Western Isles Local Authority (CnES) on a 3 year ERDF funded project on the development of infrastructure for demonstrating the potential for hydrogen technologies to deliver a low carbon society. The particular focus is the use of hydrogen as an energy store in order to maximise energy capture from constrained or off-grid renewable electricity generation.


Reducing Fuel Cost on Fishing Vessels using Hydrogen. A 3 year project funded by European Fisheries Fund (EFF).  A pilot project that will establish how a range of engines could be modified in a way that will maximise the fuel savings whilst ensuring safe operation.

Sustainable Energy And Micro-renewables (SEAM), Inverness content

Sustainable Energy And Micro-renewables (SEAM), Inverness

Sustainable Energy And Micro-renewables (SEAM), Inverness

The SEAM Centre is a training, information and research facility based at Inverness College UHI.

Key expertise

  • Practical training in all aspects of micro-renewables
  • CPD training
  • Biomass
  • Solar PV
  • Heat pumps
  • Wind turbines
  • Under-floor heating
  • Fully integrated micro systems

Key contact

Micro renewables, installation training

The Centre provides short course training for qualified plumbers and electricians to give them the skills required to install small-scale renewable energy systems (such as biomass, heat pumps, solar PV, solar hot water and wind turbines) as well as sustainable energy technology (such as underfloor heating and rainwater harvesting). It is also developing continuing professional development (CPD) training for architects, planners and other relevant professions. This will be extended to the provision of education and information on many aspects of renewable energy and sustainable construction for the general public, apprentices and school groups.

The SEAM Centre provides extensive practical training areas and a well appointed teaching space. A range of technologies and manufacturers are represented with fully functioning or demonstration equipment within the centre.

  • Dimplex and NIBE heat pumps, with Kensa training units
  • KWB and Palazzetti biomass boilers
  • GB-Sol solar PV panels
  • AES Solar thermal collectors
  • Leading Edge and Proven wind turbines
  • Rainwater harvesting equipment
  • Begetube underfloor heating

Projects at SEAM


An NPP programme to help make renewable energy more accessible to the smallest communities in the most remote areas of Northern Europe.

The Scottish School of Forestry (SFF), Inverness content

The Scottish School of Forestry (SFF), Inverness

The Scottish School of Forestry (SFF), Inverness

The Scottish School of Forestry, part of Inverness College UHI, is a self contained site 6 miles from the centre of Inverness with classrooms, workshops, library, computer suite, refectory and students common room.

Key expertise

  • Forestry skills
  • Sustainable forest management
  • Woodfuel technology
  • Woodfuel research
  • Community furnaces and systems

Key contact

Woodfuel systems, technology, installation and training

Practical activities take place on its 10 hectare site or in nearby forests. The School has over twenty years experience of delivering practically based forestry training. It offers both FE and HE, including a BSc in Sustainable Forest Management which has achieved widespread recognition for training graduates to meet current and future industry needs.

The School of Construction and Forestry openly encourages links with outside organisations such as Careers Scotland and Highland Secondary Schools and regularly welcomes groups of pupils, teachers and careers advisers in to College for hands on sessions and taster days.

Woodland Research Group (WRG)

Also based in Inverness College, the Woodland Research Group was formed to develop research projects covering all aspects of the functioning, management and utilisation of woodlands with a regional focus on the Highlands and Islands.

The group is lead by a partnership of Highland Birchwoods and Inverness College UHI and brings together a wealth of expertise in applied research in woodland ecology, forest management and timber utilisation including specialist expertise in woodfuel, sustainable forestry, woodland palaeoecology and scrub ecology. The Group has an Advisory Panel drawn from public and private sector interests which will drive its strategic and operational direction with an emphasis on current issues affecting woodlands and forestry.


Forest Energy

The WRG is represented in a COST Action project called 'Forest Energy Action'. It brings together a network of over 30 countries worldwide, looking at the development and harmonisation of new operational research and assessment procedures for sustainable forest biomass supply.
Forest biomass offers the largest potential as a renewable fuel, but a reliable and sustainable supply of forest fuel needs to be ensured and new technological solutions to procure forest biomass are needed. The Action will provide an original synthesis of multidisciplinary research efforts and innovative reference for forest biomass for energy terminology, sampling methods, standard measurements, and research methdodologies. This synthesis will promote the increase in the use of forest biomass for energy as laid out in the EU strategies.

MSc by Research Project in woodfuel supply

Chris Perkins' research thesis is entitled: 'A GIS Decision Support System for Emerging Woodfuel energy markets', aimed to produce and test a replicable Decision Support System to enable potential actors in the woodfuel supply chain to assess the economic and environmental potential for the installation of woodfuel technology.

Woodfuel supply chain study

Based at the Balloch campus, Inverness College UHI. The campus installed a woodfuel boiler in 2007 to heat the existing buildings on the site (previously heated by electric storage heaters) and to supply woodchip to two other woodfuel boilers in the surrounding area - one at the new Culloden Battlefield site visitor centre, the other at the FC offices at Smithton. Data has been collected from the supply chain and heating requirements of this functioning woodfuel district heating scheme and functioning supply chain. The data will be analysed to critically assess the viability of this real life local woodfuel use in the Highlands.

Past projects

NPP Northern Woodheat

The Northern Periphery Program (NPP) Northern WoodHeat project aimed to set up small and medium scale woodfuel supply chains optimising benefits to local communities.


The mechanical timber industry is a vital source of employment across the Northern Periphery and is characterised by small and medium sized enterprises. The greatest hindrance to the success of these small and family enterprises in the NPP region is the lack of co-operation, networking, and marketing know-how, and particularly in Sweden and Scotland, the lack of technology expertise.
The BITWON innovation network, investigate, developed and commercialised heat-treated, oil-treated and pressed timber products from the northern periphery area that can be utilised by the DIY and construction markets int he EU region. These products were developed and modified using innovative ideas exchanged by SMEs from the development programme, thereby creating more environmentally friendly products than may of those currently on offer. These products are suitable for the needs of dwelling, interior decorating and construction.

Willow Biomass

Through collaboration with the Agronomy Institute at Orkney College UHI, both Highland Birchwoods and Inverness College UHI have been involved in two projects involving the trialing and development of short rotation coppice of willow for biomass in Orkney.

Scottish Association for Marine Science UHI (SAMS), Oban content

Scottish Association for Marine Science UHI (SAMS), Oban

Scottish Association for Marine Science UHI (SAMS), Oban

SAMS UHI is one of the UK's leading and oldest independent marine science research organisations, and one of the oldest oceanographic institutions in the world.

Key expertise

  • Environmental monitoring
  • Marine Science
  • Environmental Technology
  • Marine renewable energy
  • Sea ice and technology;
  • Biogeochemisty & earth sciences;
  • ecology;
  • Marine microbial and molecular biology

Key contact

Marine renewable technology, testing and monitoring, marine bioscience

SAMS UHI is committed to increasing our knowledge and stewardship of the marine environment through research, education, maintenance of research infrastructure, and knowledge transfer. 

Research activities

Activities encompass the entire breadth of marine science, following five major research themes: Arctic research; marine processes and climate; marine renewable energy; prosperity from marine ecosystems; and industrial impacts on oceans. Our core strategic research programme is Oceans 2025 in which we collaborate with six other UK marine science organisations. SAMS UHI is a Collaborative Centre of the Natural Environment Research Council, and hosts the National Facility for Scientific Diving and the Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa.

Energy specific activities

  • Bio fuels from marine micro and macroalgae; Exploring seaweed harvesting, fermentation and anaerobic digestion processes for the production of ethanol and methane.
  • Interactions between marine renewable devices and the environment; Collision risk of marine vertebrates with tidal stream devices, reef effects of offshore structures, Benthic impacts of renewable devices, impacts of algal structures.
  • Marine policy; Policy development around emerging renewable energy infrastructure and operation.

SAMS UHI capabilities

SAMS UHI research infrastructure includes two research vessels, new aquarium facilities, a deep-sea lander development centre, a dive unit, modern and well-equipped research and teaching laboratories, conference and meeting rooms, a diverse range of sampling and analytical equipment, an on-site hostel, workshops, and a well stocked research library.SAMS UHI operates two wholly owned subsidiary companies: SAMS Research Services Ltd (SRSL) delivers our commercial activities, while the European Centre for Marine Biotechnology (ECMB) is a business incubator facility that supports the growth of marine biotechnology companies.The SMI website has much more information than we can capture in this summary.

Projects at SAMS


Marine Energy Consortium. Part of phase2 Supergen to increase knowledge and understanding of device-sea interactions of energy converters from model scale in the laboratory to full size in the open sea.


A project investigating sustainable fuels from Marine Biomass; the potential use of both macroalgae and microalgae as alternatives to terrestrial agri-fuel production.


Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment. A project undertaken by SAMS and ERI focussed on environmental issues surrounding the development of marine renewable energy and the socio-economic impacts of such technologies.

Hebridean Marine Energy Futures

Incorporating LCC, ERI and SAMS with a number of industry partners - most notably Aquamarine and Wavegen - a consortium of  various marine operators and wave technology developers assessing the wave resource to the west of Lewis.


Equitable testing and evaluation of marine energy extraction devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impacts.

Marine Scotland Research

Commissioned research projects on the environmental impacts of marine energy technologies.

Biofuel from Algae

A 3yr Carbon Trust initiative to develop a sustainable, cost effective biofuel from alga.


The Marine Alliance for Science & Technology for Scotland (MASTS) pools the research talent in marine science from across Scotland.

INIS Hydro project

Surveying areas across the Irish sea with SAMS using their survey vessel R.V. Calanus to survey a large area of the Firth of Lorne. The other area being surveyed as part of this project are; the SW Islay Renewables area n Argyll, Scotland; Dundalk Bay (shallow and deep) in the Republic of Ireland; Carlingford Lough and Approaches – with its north coast in Northern Ireland and its south coast in the Republic; Dundrum Bay in Northern Irealnd; Parts of the coast off the Mourne mountains in Northern Ireland.